The GADD45G regulator was active in layers of the brain where cells that ultimately form the cortex are born. Specifically, in mice and chimps, GADD45G suppresses the development of brain regions which in humans are involved in higher cognitive functions like conscious thought and language."
Completely losing GADD45G would be like losing the brakes," says Kingsley. That happens in pituitary tumours when the regulator fails and cells grow without restraint, but in healthy humans the regulatory change would have only decreased activity in specific brain areas, causing them to grow larger. (Coghlan, 2011; see also McLean et al., 2011)